independent and dependent variable
1. Jury decisions are influenced by the attractiveness of the defendant.
2. A drug company is advertising a new drug that helps people recover from jet lag faster. You are skeptical, so you conduct an experiment to test their claim. In your experiment, 100 people are flown from San Francisco to Tokyo. During the flight, half the participants are given the drug company's new drug. The other half of the participants are given a placebo (i.e., sugar pill) during the flight. Six hours after they land, all participants are asked to rate how sleepy and disoriented they feel.
3. Vohs and Schooler (2008) conducted a study to investigate the effect of beliefs about free will on behavior.
Thirty college students participated in their study. Participants were randomly assigned to read one of two paragraphs taken from the same book. One of the paragraphs suggested that scientists believe that free will is an illusion. The other paragraph discussed consciousness and did not mention the topic of free will. All participants were then asked to complete a set of math problems, presented one at a time on a computer screen. Participants were asked to complete each problem. They were also told that the computer program had an error such that the answers to some of the problems may appear with the problem and that they should try to solve the problems on their own (they could make the answer disappear by pressing the space bar when the problem appeared. The researchers measured the number of times the participants pressed the space bar as a measure of cheating behavior (more presses means less cheating).
Operationally Defining Variables
Remember that the variables that we make hypotheses about are often abstract constructs. Designing research to examine the relationships between variables involves the process of operationally defining those variables in terms of how they are manipulated or measured. Consider each of the following research descriptions, identify the variables, and briefly describe how they are operationally defined
4.The nonconscious mimicry of the behaviors of interacting partners is referred to as the chameleon effect. Chartrand and Bargh (1999) performed a study to examine how mimicry within an interaction influenced the quality of the interaction and liking between partners. They had pairs of participants describe what they saw in photographs. One of the participants in each pair was a confederate (working with the researchers). Half of the confederates were instructed to mirror the behaviors of their partner, while the other half engaged in neutral mannerisms. Following the picture description interaction, participants completed questionnaires asking them to report how much they liked their partner (the confederate) and how smoothly the interaction had gone. The results showed that participants rated the interaction smoother and reported liking their partners more in the mimic conditior&than in the neutral condition.
5. These days, advertising is a nearly omnipresent part of our lives. While we may be consciously aware of the obvious attempts of advertisers to influence our behaviors, we may not be aware of more subtle effects. Braun and Lotus (1998) conducted research in which they investigated how memories about an object (already experienced) can change as a function of advertising (presented after experiencing the object). In their first experiment, the researchers demonstrated that memories can be altered by presentation of misleading information in advertisements. Their follow-up experiment examined whether this effect would persist if people knew that the advertisements may contain misleading information. In this study, participants believed that they were participating in a chocolate taste test experiment. They were presented samples of persist if people knew that the advertisements may contain misleading information. In this study, participants believed that they were participating in a chocolate taste test experiment. They were presented samples of the candy in a green wrapper, and they tasted and rated the product. Following a brief filler task, respondents were asked to evaluate advertisements for the product. The advertisement presented misleading information about the color of the wrapper (suggesting that the wrapper was blue). Following another brief filler task, participants were given a memory test for the color of the wrapper used in the taste test by selecting the color from a color wheel. The researchers also told the participants that some of the colors in the advertisement were not representative of the true colors. Some participants were told this when they saw the advertisements; others were told only at the memory test. The researchers again found a strong misinformation effect of the advertisement despite the explicit warnings given to participants. The effect was strongest when the warning was given at the memory test. The authors concluded that warning consumers about past misleading advertising may have little effect because the misinformation may have already become incorporated into memory.
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